Articles India

Female Genital Mutilation: Indian Muslim Journalist Leads Campaign Against FGM Among Bohra Muslims

fgm-india-bohra-muslim

Aarefa Johari, a 29-year-old Muslim journalist based in Mumbai, comes from the community of Bohras, a sect of Shi’ite Muslims. This community is mostly found in western India, especially in Mumbai and Pune.

In recent years, Ms. Johari has emerged as a major voice against the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) that is prevalent in many parts of the Muslim world. However, it seems this practice, known locally as khatna, is also prevalent among Bohra Muslims. Bohras are an orthodox community and very little is written about them publicly. Ms. Johari’s campaign has now focused on FGM among Bohra Muslims.

In two recent interviews, Ms. Johari discussed her own personal experience with regard to FGM and the response she gets from community members about her anti-FGM campaign.

Following are excerpts from a report based on Ms. Johari’s interview with Anahita Mukherji, a senior editor with The Times of India daily,[1] and from an interview with her last year:[2]

 Interview: “Her Frock Was Pulled Up; Her Mother Told Her That Something Would Happen To Her ‘Down There'”

“Aarefa Johari was seven when she was taken to a dingy building in Bhendi Bazaar [in Mumbai] for an appointment with a woman she did not know. Her frock was pulled up. Her mother told her that something would happen to her ‘down there’ that would only take a minute. In hindsight, she’s thankful for what little preparation she received before her khatna, the word Bohras [a sect of Shi’ite Muslims] use for circumcision. The procedure fits the World Health Organization’s definition of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).

“The Bohra community, though, would never dream of calling it that. ‘Bohras think FGM is one of those terrible things that ‘African tribals’ do. They only think they’re snipping off a tiny bit of skin. But given the unscientific manner in which it’s often performed, there’s no way of knowing how much skin is cut off. And why should they be cutting off anything at all?’ asks Johari (29), journalist and co-founder of Sahiyo, an organization battling khatna.

Journalist and anti-FGM campaigner Aarefa Johari (image courtesy: womensweb.in)
Journalist and anti-FGM campaigner Aarefa Johari (image courtesy: womensweb.in)

“She remembers ‘something being done between my legs’ at the time of her khatna. ‘I think I cried and was in pain,’ she says, recollecting vaguely a sense of soreness while urinating soon after. But the pain wore off, and she didn’t think much of the incident while growing up. ‘Bohras use the word khatna for male circumcision as well as for what’s done to women. I remember khatnas being celebrated in a big way for boys in the family. It was a little more hush-hush for girls, and was sometimes celebrated with a quiet lunch,’ she says.

“Many years later, as an adolescent, she recalls her mother showing her a magazine piece on a Bohra woman talking about her own experience of khatna. That was probably the first time both mother and daughter began thinking of the subject. As a college student exposed to feminist ideas while studying liberal arts, Johari began understanding what had happened to her. She began reading about khatna, a practice that Dawoodi Bohras in western India inherited from Yemen, where they trace the ideological origins of their sect. It was a practice meant to snip the woman’s clitoris, a part of the external genitalia involved in sexual pleasure.

“The more she read, the angrier Johari became. It was virtually a case of retrospective trauma as she began recollecting what she went through in that room in Bhendi Bazaar. Initially, her anger and betrayal was directed at her mother. After all, it was her mother who had taken her for the procedure. And isn’t your mother supposed to protect you?

“Much later she began to realize that it wasn’t her mother’s fault. ‘Women are often used as a mere cog in the wheel of patriarchy. Men don’t always have to be directly involved in the process of controlling women,’ says Johari. She figured, over time, that her mother had not intentionally tried to harm her, and had not known the implications of the procedure. While the physical damage that FGM will have on a woman will vary depending on how much is cut off, Johari stresses on the psychological scars. As for whether the practice affects a woman’s sex life, Johari says that’s something she will never personally know, because she will never have a frame of reference.”

Fgm is very much islamic

Book 003, Number 0684:

Abu Musa reported: There cropped up a difference of opinion between a group of Muhajirs (Emigrants and a group of Ansar (Helpers) (and the point of dispute was) that the Ansar said: The bath (because of sexual intercourse) becomes obligatory only-when the semen spurts out or ejaculates. But the Muhajirs said: When a man has sexual intercourse (with the woman), a bath becomes obligatory (no matter whether or not there is seminal emission or ejaculation). Abu Musa said: Well, I satisfy you on this (issue). He (Abu Musa, the narrator) said: I got up (and went) to ‘A’isha and sought her permission and it was granted, and I said to her: 0 Mother, or Mother of the Faithful, I want to ask you about a matter on which I feel shy. She said: Don’t feel shy of asking me about a thing which you can ask your mother, who gave you birth, for I am too your mother. Upon this I said: What makes a bath obligatory for a person? She replied: You have come across one well informed! The Messenger of Allah  said: When anyone sits amidst four parts (of the woman) and the circumcised parts touch each other a bath becomes obligatory.
Book 41, Number 5251: Narrated Umm Atiyyah al-Ansariyyah: A woman used to perform circumcision in Medina. Mohammed said to her: “Do not cut severely as that is better for a woman and more desirable for a husband.”

The word “severely” is the key word. He didn’t say ‘don’t cut’.


Interview: “I Realized That Very Few Other Bohra Women Want To Talk About This Subject Openly – Everyone Is Too Afraid Of Being Ostracized”

Question: “You advocate an extremely important issue. There are few who dare to cross established boundaries. Tell us what made you take this up.”

Aarefa Johari: “I took it up because to me, it was the most obvious thing to do. An injustice was inflicted on me and it continues on so many young girls in my community. It’s a violation, and the moment I was old enough to understand the meaning and intended repercussions of this act of violence, I found myself outraged. For a long time, I used to take out my anger about circumcision (and other aspects of patriarchy) at home, at my mother and other family members. I only started speaking out in public some three years ago, after an anonymous Bohra woman started a change.org petition to get the Syedna [the spiritual leader of Bohra Muslims] to stop this practice. That is when a lot of media outlets began looking for Bohra women who would talk about the subject openly, without concealing their identity, and I didn’t mind doing so.

“Gradually, I realized that very few other Bohra women want to talk about this subject openly – everyone is too afraid of being ostracized and boycotted by the community – although many women do want to discuss the subject anonymously. For myself, I did not think of speaking out against this practice as ‘crossing a boundary,’ because I am not a religious person and have disconnected myself from the community in many ways. I never for a minute cared about being boycotted because I am not looking for anyone’s approval before I speak my mind and call out injustices.”

“In India, It [FGM] Is Restricted To The Bohra Community, As Far As I Know; We Haven’t Heard Of Any Other Sect Practicing It”

endfgm-campaign-video-017_1455100124

Question: “How have your own family and close acquaintances reacted to your raising voice against FGM?”

Aarefa Johari: “Thankfully, my immediate family has been supportive – no one has asked me not to speak out. I do wish more of my family members would join me in publicly denouncing this practice, but among Bohras there is a culture of never upsetting the status quo – even if there is dissent, it is behind closed doors; for the public, there are appearances. I can’t say I have done any significant work in this field yet – I have a long way to go – but so far, most of my acquaintances have reacted positively.

“I have had a few people tell me that they would not continue the practice on their daughters. On the other hand, I did have one relative who was very upset with me for speaking out – this is a person (woman) who believes that women need to be circumcised because they have too much sexual energy that needs to be curbed, and that all uncut women become prostitutes.”

“Religions Serve To Disempower Women, Even If They Claim Otherwise, Because Pretty Much All Religions Are Rooted In Patriarchy”

Question: “What role does religion play in empowering women?”

Aarefa Johari: “In my experience, none. Religions serve to disempower women, even if they claim otherwise, because pretty much all religions are rooted in patriarchy. As long as patriarchal systems exist, women cannot be truly empowered.”

Question: “If there is one thing you could change about the way women are treated in India, what would that be?”

Aarefa Johari: “It’s hard to pinpoint one thing. Every problem has its root in a social structure that places men above women. It is a structure that places immense pressure on men as well, because they have to conform to certain ideas of masculinity just as women are expected to subscribe to a specific kind of femininity. If these ideas are wrecked at their very base, then I guess women will be treated as equals.”

Endnotes:

[1] Timesofindia.indiatimes.com (India), February 5, 2016. The original English of the interviews has been edited for clarity and standardization.
[2] Womensweb.in (India), April 27, 2015.

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